Features included


Adjective Shift

E4: He’s really big getting.

E5: He’s dead angry getting.


Q37: That’s o’er big a bit for me.



Q11: It was eight pound.

Q12: It’s ten mile away.

Q13: I’ve no seen him in fifteen year!

Q15: That’s seven long mile from here.

Q14: He could put away seven or eight pint in one sitting.


Q5: There’s too much people here.

Q6: No one got as much presents as him.

Northern subject rule

A12: My neighbours goes there all the time.

A13: They goes there for a drink every Friday.

A17: They never was that happy together.

A29: Was your neighbours having a party?

A3: Some folk was queuing up outside.

A4: They was happy to help.

A57: Me and my pal was here first.

A58: They was just sitting in the cupboard anyway.

A59: Even the bigger shops was quiet.

A8: Some folk doesnae like chocolate.

A9: They doesnae argue much these days.


A1: You was supposed to meet me at your hoose.

A2: We was waiting for ages.

A38: Aye, there were a man at the door earlier.



D3: I’m just after speaking to him.

D4: No he’s just after one.

Auxiliary doubling

D23: If I had’ve seen her I would have waved.

D5: He might’ve no have left yet

D7: What should’ve he have bought instead.

D8: Whit should’ve we said to them?


D1: I’m no been there in a while.

D35: We’re had our lunch already.

D36: I’m been there twice since April.

Double modals

J10: You used to could get the papers at the shop on the corner.

J14: Will you can meet me at six?

J2: He might can help you next week.

J20: Why would I might know him?

J3: They must could see us at some point.

J4: He must can swim, I see him at the pool all the time.

J7: He’ll can do it next week.

Zero auxiliaries

D11: I would rather made dinner masel.

D12: I would only been about two at the time.

D14: There been a lot of rain this week.

D15: He was seen taken away by the police.

D25: I think there a man outside.



I3: They bought a hoose, and him no even in work at the time!

O36: He was smaller nor I expected.

P1: He’s a nice guy but.

For to infinitives

J21: I’ll put the heater on for to dry your jaiket.

J22: You’re no allowed for to park on the main road.

J23: I’ve got a new phone for to play with.


T1: See him next door, I can’t stand him.

Relative clauses

O30: I met Jim Smith, that comes fae Inverness, the other day.

O40: That’s the guy bumped into me earlier.



K1: He hid aie a dram in him.

K3: We had jist on wir jerseys as well.


C10: I’ve a copy of that at home.

C11: I’ve the film you’re talking about at home.

C12: I’ve that photo on my wall now.

C13: We’ve a copy of that at home.


C4: I haven’t to go back until September.

C5: I haven’t any money on me.

C6: I haven’t that one with me.

C7: We hadn’t a lot of rain last week.

C9: I haven’t steak that often.


C1: Have you one of these as well?

C2: Have you any money for the meter?

C3: Have you that charger with you?

C8: Had we a lot of snow last Christmas?


H1: Gonnae turn the volume doon!

H10: Mere you over here and let us see it!

H11: Get that watched, it’s brilliant.

H14: Calm ye doon, it’s no that bad.

H2: Gonnae you leave us alane!

H4: Wantae you leave me alane!

H6: Come awa you over here and I’ll fix your shoes.

H8: Away you over there and behave!

H9: Mon you over here for a photie!


Embedded inversion

O1: I asked was he here for long.

O2: I’m trying to remember where did I leave my keys.

O42: I asked is he here for long.

O43: I don’t remember what did I get last time.

O44: I don’t remember what one did I get last time.

Verb raising

H7: Go you over there!

O3: Take you a peerie sweetie,

O45: Whaar bides she noo?

O46: When giens she awa again?

O49: Say dey we should bring wine?

Locative Discovery Expressions:


D22: There it’s there!

D26: Here it’s here!

D28: Here I’m here!

D29: There I’m there!


D31: There’s it!

D32: There’s him!

D33: There’s them!


D19: Here it’s!

D21: There it’s!

D27: There I’m!

D30: Here I’m!



Q38: Take a look at this photos and tell us whit one’s the best.

Q40: I’ve got they shoes as well.

Q41: I like them books.

 Q42: Yon tree’s grown a lot.

Q43: Thon tree’s grown a lot.

Q44: Yon boys are always oot playing football.


Q46: I’ve got the cold again.

Q7: He has to go to the hospital.

Q8: I’m going to my bed.

Q9: I’ve had my dinner already.

Irregular plurals

M1: He got something in his een!

M2: You have to take off your sheen at the door.


Q18: I got a big yin so we can share.

Q23: I liked the yin wi Jack Nicholson.


Q16: I’m aff to meet himself later.

Q17: So apparently himself is joining us for dinner.

Q2: I huvnae met any other body from school in ages.

Q28: We’ll take wir brollies just in case.

Q29: Wir brollies were useless in that wind.

Q30: I saw youse from across the street earlier but you didnae see me.

Q32: Did ee like it at a’?

Q35: He looked at hissel in the mirror a lot.

Q36: They’re always feeling sorry for theirsels.


Irregular perfect

B14: Hurry up, I’ve putten your dinner out.

B5: I would’ve came along just for the cakes!

B6: They’ve went home already.

B7: The waiter has forgot about us.

Irregular preterite

B1: I seen that last week aye.

B10: He jamp in after it!

B15: They telt me to call back later.

B16: I selt it ages ago.

B17: I gied him a wee present last year.

B18: He teached his dog how to shut the door.

B19: He catched a cold the other day.

B2: I done that the other day.

B20: He come by the other day.

B21: He swum the Channel for Children in Need.

B4: Somebody sung that at the karaoke last week.

B8: That one costit me a tenner.

B9: I hut my head on the shelf.

Progressive statives

A39: I’m wanting to be at the station for one.

A40: I’m needing a cup of tea after that

A41: I’m thinking he’ll be late in this weather.

A42: I’m doubting it’ll be a problem.

A43: I’m forgetting that you don’t have milk in your tea.

A44: I’m forgetting your name.

A46: Are you mindin that we’re goin oot the night?

A47: Are you rememberin where we’re parked?

A49: I’m no understanding what you’re saying.

A50: I’m liking your new haircut.

A51: I’m loving your new jacket.

A52: I’m hearing you’re home this weekend.

A53: I’m no intending to leave until ten o’clock.

A54: I’m no caring how daft it looks.

A55: I’m knowing how to get there.

A56: I’m seein you’ve got a new car.



N30: I amn’t ready!

N31: I’m coming with you, amn’t I?


S1: So he is.

S2: Neither he is, I’m thinking of someone else.

S3: It’s a lovely day, so it is.

S4: It’s no a very nice day, neither it is.

Emphatic polarity

D16: I div like a scone!

N11: Naw I’m urnae!

U1: Aye he can that.

U3: Aye he will that.


N20: She’s coming for dinner next week, int she?

N21: She gets a paper every morning, dint she?

N22: She was there early, wint she?

N23: She’s been there before, hint she?

N26: Hint she been there before?

N28: Wint she here earlier?

N34: Wint it just a lovely day!

N38: There’s nothin like a cup of tea, int there no?


D39: I’dna seen her for years.

D40: I’vena been there before.

D41: We’rena going to catch it now.

N10: He willnae be bothered.

N12: I umnae ready.

N15: Urnae you fed up of moving about?

N18: Willnae he be angry?

N19: Dinnae we get a shot?

N4: Brian isnae like that.

N5: He wisnae there.

N53: Cannae I get a shot?

N57: I dunnoo like coffee.

N58: Brian isnoo like that.

N6: I dinnae like coffee.

N60: He winna be bothered.

N7: I didnae like it all.

N8: I huvnae been there before.

Negative concord

N39: I cannae see nothin.

N40: I cannae see nothin naewhere.

N41: I didnae see it naewhere.

N42: There wisnae naebody outside.

N43: There wisnae naebody naewhere.

N44: There wisnae naebody anywhere.

N45: There wisnae anybody naewhere.

N46: I didnae see nae shoes.

N47: I didnae see nothin like that.

N48: They’ll no have nothin like that.

N49: They don’t sell nothin like that.

N50: I hardly bought nothing.

N51: He doesnae stay here no more.

N52: Nane of the singers was nae good!


N1: I never saw you.

N2: He’s never oot his bed yet.


N37: I cannae no see them.

S8: We were stuck in traffic for ages, were we?

Ø elements

D10: I na been there afore.

D18: I daa ken.

D38: I caa mind his name.

D9: I na want to be late.


G10: Turn on the telly til we hear the news.

G12: His dad was Govan as well.

G15: I got that one off of my pal.

G4: Do you have anything to wipe up that with?

G5: Nearly all of them were closed wi the council.

G6: We were all petrified frae him.

G7: I got that one off my pal.

G8: They’ll be finished or that time.

G9: I said til her I’d see her later on.

Q10: I’ll have a wee drap soup.


Eh tags

H13: Put It down there eh!

O13: You have milk in your tea, eh?

O15: You’ve no seen the new Star Wars film, eh no?

O16: Naebody liked that one, eh no?

O17: Eh you’re leaving?

O18: Eh you’re no ready to leave?


O41: Sure Jim’s fae Inverness?


O10: How do you think that?

O11: How do you think he’s doing that?

O12: What did you get all for Christmas?

O19: What like was the weather?

O21: Where were you about?

O24: Whit fur did ye dae that?

O24: She told me what fine these pies were, and where you could get them.

O26: Fit a folk was there!

O27: Fan ye gaan there?

O31: Whatna tea is this?

O32: Whatten bonnie garden!

O33: Fitna wye dae ye want tae ging there?

O34: Fa belongs the car outside?                                

O7: How can I no come in?

Verbs and Arguments:

Light verbs

F1: Could you gie me a len of your pen?

F2: Have you made a visit to the dentists yet?

F3: She’ll no gie him a dance!

F4: I’ll gie him a look-in.

F5: The kettle’s no through the bile yet.

F6: Gie it a skelp!


B23: I’m finished my soup now.

B24: Are you done your dinner yet?

E1: His van needs washed.

E2: That baby wants fed.

E3: Most teddies like cuddled.

E6: Sounds like the dog wants out.

Promise control

V1: You promised me to be here early!

That’s NP been

I1: That’s him been sacked again.

I2: That’s there been rain every day this week.

Transitive expletives

R1: There’s something fallen down the sink.

R2: There are some other people been seated already.

R4: There’s some idiot smashed the window.

Ø verbs

G1: I’ll away up the road.

G14: On your shoes, we’re gaan out.

G2: Before I’m even finished speakin, he ons his coat and storms oot!